Tetsu Moriyama and Hideo Ohtani
Risk assessment tools incorporating human error probabilities in the Japanese small-sized establishment
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ssci
2009 December Volume 47 Issue 10 Pages 1379-1397
Risk assessment; Tool; Unsafe act; PSF; Human error
Although it has been estimated that as many as 80% of all occupational accidents have human errors as a cause, no risk assessment tools incorporating human-related elements have been developed for small companies. Human error probability (HEP) and human error analysis (HEA) have been used for large-scale, safety-critical industries for last three decades, but these tools are not suitable for smaller, more general industries that comprise the majority of accident settings.
Here, we describe and verify a risk assessment tool that includes human-related elements for small companies. The tool expands on traditional risk assessment methods, such as matrix, risk graph and numerical scoring method, by adding human-related elements. The tool is easy-to-use in occupational environments, and includes assessments of human behavior and potentially outdated machinery at work place.
2. Legal requirements for risk assessment
2.3. Requirements for conducting risk assessment in Japan
2.4. Unsafe acts in accident statistics
3. Human error and human error probability (HEP)
3.1. Human error
3.2. Causes of accidents and fault tree analysis (FTA) of unsafe acts
3.3. Human reliability estimation methods and sources
3.4. Typical HEP and PSF
3.5. PSF for risk assessment
3.6. PSF levels incorporating human error
4. Risk assessment
4.1. Definition of risk and elements
4.2. Tolerable risk
4.3. Risk estimation procedures and tools
5. Field study in the food processing industry
5.1. Entanglement risk for meat mixing machine5.2. Pullman loaf
slicer (sandwich bread slicer) and ‘‘cutting or severing” hazard
5.3. Human–machine interface example
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